University of Aarhus, Denmark
Entanglement links two quantum objects together in such
a way that each of them lacks a definite "quantum state". Such a link
opens completely new possibilities for communication, secret coding and
computing. In principle, entanglement exists in any complex object around
us, where it appears and disappears in an uncontrolled way. Moreover, the
larger an object, the shorter the lifetime of its entanglement with the
rest of the world. Unlike this "natural" entanglement, useful "engineered"
entanglement should possess special properties. For instance, for quantum
communication or teleportation purposes the entanglement must be generated
between distant objects and has to be maintained for long enough time.
Recently such entanglement between two clouds of
containing billions of atoms each has been demonstrated experimentally.
Since entanglement has been generated by light pulses traversing the two
clouds, this approach allows, in principle, the entanglement of very
distant objects. The reasons why billions of atoms can stay entangled and
the possible applications for quantum information processing will be
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